Hypnosis Research Articles

Hypnosis Research Articles, Papers, References, and Studies.

Links to articles hosted legally on author websites are provided where possible. Unfortunately, many articles are behind paywalls and only those with institutional access can get access to them. If you want a free copy of any of these articles your best bet is to email the author and ask for a reprint – most are happy to oblige.


Abbot, N. C., Stead, L.F., White, A. R., Barnes, J. (1998) Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD001008. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001008

Alladin, A. (2009). Evidence-based cognitive hypnotherapy for depression. Contemporary Hypnosis, 26(4). 245-262.

Allison, D. B., Faith, M. S. (1996). Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy for obesity: A meta-analytic reappraisal. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 513-516.


Banyai, E. I., Hilgard, E. R. (1976). A comparison of active-alert hypnotic induction with traditional relaxation induction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85(2), 218-224.

Bär, K. J., Gaser, C., Nenadic, I., Sauer, H. (2002). Transient activation of a somatosensory area in painful hallucinations shown by fMRI. NeuroReport, 13(6), 1-4.

Barabasz, M., Spiegel, D. (1989). Hypnotizability and weight loss in obese subjects. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 8, 335-341.

Barber, T. X. (2000). A deeper understanding of hypnosis: Its secrets, its nature, its essence. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 42, 208-272

Barber, J., Donaldson, D., Ramras, S., Allen, G. D. (1979). The relationship between nitrous oxide conscious sedation and the hypnotic state. Journal of the American Dental Association, 99(4), 624-626.

Barber, T. X., Wilson, S. C. (1978). The Barber Suggestibility Scale and the Creative Imagination Scale: Experimental and clinical applications. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 21: 84-108.

Barnier, A. J. (2002). Post-hypnotic amnesia for autobiographical episodes: a laboratory model of functional amnesia? Psychological Science, 13: 232-7.

Barnier, A. M., McConkey, K. M. (2004). Defining and identifying the highly hypnotizable person. In: M. Heap, R. J. Brown, D. A. Oakley (Eds.), The Highly Hypnotizable Person. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Barnier, A. J., McConkey, K. M. (2003). Hypnosis, human nature and complexity: integrating neuroscience approaches into hypnosis research. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 51: 282-308.

Barnier, A. J., Nash, M. R. (2008). Introduction: a roadmap for explanation, a working definition. In M. R. Nash & A. J. Barnier (eds). The Oxford Handbook of Hypnosis: Theory, Research and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Barrios, A. A. (2001). A theory of hypnosis based on principles of conditioning and inhibition. Contemporary Hypnosis, 18, 163-202.

Beck, A. T., Alford, B. A. (2009). Depression: Causes and treatment. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press

Benedetti, F., Maggi, G., Lopiano, L., Lanotte, M., Rainero, I., Vighetti, S., Pollo, A. (2003). Open versus hidden medical treatments: The patient’s knowledge about a therapy affects the therapy outcome. Prevention & Treatment, Vol 6(1), Jun 2003, No Pagination Specified Article 1a

Benham, G., Bowers, S., Nash, M., Muenchen, R. (1998). Self-fulfilling prophecy and hypnotic response are not the same thing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1604-1613.

Bernstein, E. M., & Putnam, F. W. (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 727–735. 

Blakemore, S-J., Oakley, D. A., Frith, C. D. (2003). Delusions of alien control in the human brain. Neuropsychologia, 41: 1058-67.

Bolocofsky, D. N., Spinler, D., Coulthard-Morris, L. (1985). Effectiveness of hypnosis as an adjunct to behavioural weight management. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 35-41.

Borkovec, T. D., Fowles, D. C. (1973). Controlled investigation of the effects of progressive and hypnotic relaxation on insomnia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82(1), 153-158.

Bornstein, P. H., Devine, D. A. (1980). Covert modeling-hypnosis in the treatment of obesity. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 17, 272-276.

Bowers, K. S. (1992). Imagination and dissociation in hypnotic responding. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 40, 253-275.

Bowers, K. S. (1993). The Waterloo-Stanford Group C (WSGC) scale of hypnotic susceptibility: Normative and comparative data. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 41, 35-46.

Bowers, K. S. (1998). Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C: Manual and Response Booklet. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 46(3), 250-268.

Braffman, W., Kirsch, I. (2001). Reaction time as a predictor of imaginative suggestibility and hypnotizability. Contemporary Hypnosis, 18(3), 107-119.

Braid, J. (1943). Neurohypnology or the rationale of nervous sleep considered in relation with animal magnetism. London.

British Psychological Society. (2001). The Nature of Hypnosis: A report prepared by a Working Party at the request of the Professional Affairs Board of the British Psychological Society. Download paper from BPS website

Brown, R. J. (1999). An integrative cognitive theory of suggestion and hypnosis. Unpublished PhD thesis, University College London.

Brown, R. J., Oakley, D. A. (2004). An integrative cognitive theory of hypnosis and hypnotizability. In: M. Heap, R. J. Brown, D. A. Oakley (Eds.), The Highly Hypnotizable Person. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Bryant, R. A., Kourch, M. (2001). Hypnotically-induced emotional numbing. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 49, 220-230.

Bryant, R. A. (2005). Hypnotic emotional numbing: A study of implicit emotion. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 53, 26-36.

Bryant, R. A., Kapur, A. (2006). Hypnotically-induced emotional numbing: The roles of hypnosis and hypnotizability. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 54(3), 281-291.


Cash, T. F., Brown, T. A. (1987). Body image in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Behaviour Modification, 11(4), 487-521.

Cloninger, C. R., Svrakic, D. M., Przybeck, T. R. (1993). A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50(12), 975-990.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cojan, Y., Waber, L., Schwartz, S., Rossier, L., Forster, A., Vuilleumier, P. (2009). The brain under self-control: Modulation of inhibitory and monitoring cortical networks during hypnotic paralysis. Neuron, 62, 862-875. Link to abstract on PubMed

Cojan, Y., Piguet, C., & Vuilleumier, P. (2015). What makes your brain suggestible? Hypnotizability is associated with differential brain activity during attention outside hypnosis. NeuroImage, 117, 367-374.

Council, J. R. (1993). Context effects in personality research. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2, 31-4.

Council, J. R., Kirsch, I., Grant, D. L. (1996). Imagination, expectancy, and hypnotic responding. In: R. G. Kunzendorf, N. P. Spanos and B. Wallace (Eds.), Hypnosis and Imagination (pp. 41-65), New York: Baywood.

Covino, N. A., Bottari, M. (2001). Hypnosis, behavioural theory, and smoking cessation. Journal of Dental Education, 65(4), 340-347.

Crawford, H. J., Gruzelier, J. H. (1992). A midstream view of the neuropsychophysiology of hypnosis: recent research and future directions. In: Fromm, E., Nash, M. (Eds.), Contemporary Hypnosis Research. Guilford Press, New York, USA, pp. 227-266.

Crawford, H. J., Gur, R. C., Skolnick, B., Gur, R. E., Benson, D. M. (1993). Effects of hypnosis on regional cerebral blood flow during ischemic pain with and without suggested hypnotic analgesia. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 15, 181-195.


de Groh, M. (1989). Correlates of hypnotic susceptibility. In: N. P. Spanos., J. F. Chaves. Hypnosis: The Cognitive Behavioural Perspective. New York: Prometheus Books.

Deckert, G. H., West, L. J. (1963). The problem of hypnotizability: A review. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 11, 205-235.

Deeprose, C., Andrade, J. (2006). Is priming during anesthesia unconscious? Consciousness and Cognition, 15, 1-23. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2005.05.003

Derbyshire, S. W. G., Whalley, M. G., Stenger, V. A., Oakley, D. A. (2004). Cerebral activation during hypnotically induced and imagined pain. NeuroImage, 27: 969-78. View PDF (0.5 MB)

Derbyshire, S. W. G., Whalley, M. G., Oakley, D. A. (2008). Fibromyalgia pain and its modulation by hypnotic and non-hypnotic suggestion: An fMRI analysis. European Journal of Pain (in press) View PDF (0.5 MB)

Deyoub, P. L., Wilkie, R. (1980). Suggestion with and without hypnotic induction in a weight reduction program. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28, 333-340.

Dienes, Z., Brown, E., Hutton, S., Kirsch, I., Mazzoni, G., Wright, D. B. (2009). Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 837-847. Download paper

Dienes, Z., & Perner, J. (2007). The cold control theory of hypnosis. In G. Jamieson (Ed.), Hypnosis and conscious states: The cognitive neuroscience perspective. Oxford University Press, pp 293-314.


Egner, T., Jamieson, G., Gruzelier, J. (2005). Hypnosis decouples cognitive control from conflict monitoring processes of the frontal lobe. NeuroImage, 27, 969-978.

Emmons, W. H., Simon, C. W. (1955). The non-recall of material presented during sleep. The American Journal of Psychology, 69, 76-81

Erhard, H. W., Mendl, M., Christiansen, S. B. (1999). Individual differences in tonic immobility may reflect behavioural strategies. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 64, 31-46.

Erickson, M. H. (1954). Hypnotism. In Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th Edition.

Eriksen, B. A., Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a traget letter in a nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics, 16, 143-149.


Faith, M., Ray, W. J. (1994). Hypnotizability and dissociation in a college age population: orthogonal individual differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 211-216.

Faymonville, M. E., Mambourg, P. H., Joris, J., Vrijens, B., Fissette, J. Albert, A., Lamy, M. (1997). Psychological approaches during conscious sedation. Hypnosis versus stress reducing strategies: a prospective randomized study. Pain, 73, 361-367.

Faymonville, M. E., Laureys, S., Degueldre, C., Fiore, G. D., Luxen, A., Franck, G., Lamy, M., Maquet, P. (2000). Neural mechanisms of antinociceptive effects of hypnosis. Anesthesiology, 92, 1257-1267.

Faymonville, M. E., Roediger, L., Fiore, G. D., Delgueldre, C., Phillips, C., Lamy, M., Luxen, A., Maquet, P., Laureys, S. (2003). Increased cerebral functional connectivity underlying the antinociceptive effects of hypnosis. Cognitive Brain Research, 17, 255-262.

Flammer, E., Bongartz, W. (2003). On the efficacy of hypnosis: A meta-analytic study. Contemporary Hypnosis, 20, 179-197. 

Flaten, M. A., Simonsen, T., Olsen, H. (1999). Drug-related information generates placebo and nocebo responses that modify the drug response. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 250-255.

Folz, E. L., While, L. E. (1962). Pain “relief” by frontal cingulotomy. Journal of Neurosurgery, 19: 89-100.

Fromm, E. (1979). The nature of hypnosis and other altered states of consciousness: An ego-psychological theory. In E. Fromm and R. Shor (eds), Hypnosis: Developments in Research and New Perspectives (pp. 81-103), New York: Aldine.

Fromm, E. (1990). Self-hypnosis: The Chicago paradigm. New York: The Guildford Press

Fromm, E. (1992). An ego-psychological theory of hypnosis. In E. Fromm and M. Nash (Eds), Contemporary Hypnosis Research (pp. 131-148), London, Guilford Press.


Gallup, G. G. (1974). Animal hypnosis: factual status of a fictional concept. Psychological Bulletin, 81(11), 836-853.

Gandhi, B., Oakley, D. A. (2005). Does ‘hypnosis’ by any other name smell as sweet? The efficacy of ‘hypnotic’ inductions depends on the label ‘hypnosis’. Consciousness and Cognition, 14, 304-315. 

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Gheorghiou, V. A., Polczyk, R., Kappeller, C. (2003). The Warmth Suggestibility Scale—a procedure for measuring the influence of suggestion on warmth sensations. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 219-234.

Gibson, H. B., Corcoran, M. E., Curran, J. D. (1977). Hypnotic susceptibility and personality: The consequences of diazepam and the sex of the subjects. British Journal of Psychology, 68, 51-59.

Goldstein, A., Hilgard, E. R. (1975). Failure of opiate antagonist Naloxone to modify hypnotic analgesia. Proceedings of the National Acadmeny of Sciences, USA, 6, 2041-2043.

Gorassini, D. R., Spanos, N. P. (1986). A cognitive-social skills approach to the successful modification of hypnotic suggestibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1004-1012.

Gorassini, D. R. (2004). Enhancing hypnotizability. In M. Heap, R. J., Brown, D. A. Oakley. The Highly Hypnotizable Person, London: Routledge.

Green, J. (2006) The five factor model of personality and hypnotizability: little variance in common. Contemporary Hypnosis, 21(4), 161-168

Green, J. P., Barabasz, A. F., Barrett, D., Montgomery, G. H. (2005). Forging ahead: the 2003 APA Division 30 definition of hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Green, J. P., Lynn, S. J. (2000). Hypnosis and suggestion-based approaches to smoking cessation. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 48(2), 195-223.

Gruzelier, J. H. (1990). Neurophysiological investigations of hypnosis: cerebral laterality and beyond. In: Van Dyck, R., Spinhoven, P. H., Van der Does, A. J. W. (Eds.), Hypnosis: Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. Free University Press, pp. 38-51.

Gruzeler, J. H. (1998). A working model of the neurophysiology of hypnosis: A review of evidence. Contemporary Hypnosis, 15, 3-21.

Gudjonsson, G. H. (1984). A new scale of interrogative suggestibility. Personality and Individual Differences, 5(3), 303-314.


Halligan, P. W., Athwal, B. S., Oakley, D. A., Frackowiak, R. S. J. (2000). The functional anatomy of a hypnotic paralysis: implications for conversion hysteria. The Lancet, 356: 986-7.

Halsband, U., Mueller, S., Hinterberger, T., Strickner, S. (2009). Plasticity changes in the brain in hypnosis and meditation. Contemporary Hypnosis, 26(4), 194-215.

Hargadon, R., Bowers, K. S. Woody, E. Z. (1995). Does counterpain imagery mediate hypnotic analgesia? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104(3), 508-516.

Hawkins, R. M. F. (2001). A systematic meta-review of hypnosis as an empirically supported treatment for pain. Pain Reviews, 8, 47-73.

Heap, M. (1996) The nature of hypnosis. The Psychologist, 9 (11), 498-501.

Heap, M., Brown, R. J., Oakley, D. A. (Eds.) (2004). The Highly Hypnotizable Person. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Heap, M., Aravind, K. (2002). Hartland’s medical and dental hypnosis (4th edition). London: Harcourt.

Hilgard E. R. (1965). Hypnotic susceptibility. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

Hilgard, E. R. (1991). A neodissociation interpretation of hypnosis. In SJ Lynn and JW Rhue, eds. Theories of hypnosis: current models and perspectives. pp. 83-104. New York, Guilford Press.

Hilgard, E. R. (1973). A neurodissociation interpretation of pain reduction in hypnosis. Psychological Review, 80,396-411.

Hilgard, E. R., Crawford, H. J., Wert, A. (1979). The Stanford Hypnotic Arm Levitation Induction and Test (SHALIT): a six minute hypnotic induction and measurement scale. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27(2), 111-124.

Holmes, E. A., Brown, R. J., Mansell, W., Fearon, R. P., Hunter, E. C. M., Frasquilho, F., Oakley, D. (2005). Are there two qualitatively distinct forms of dissociation? A review and some clinical implications. Clinical Psychology Review, 225, 1-23.

Horton, J. E., Crawford, H. J., Harrington, G., Downs, J. H. (2004). Increased anterior corpus callosum size associated with hypnotizability and the ability to control pain. Brain, 127(8), 1741-1747. Read paper

Houghton L. A., Heyman D.J., Whorwell P.J. (1996). Symptomatology, quality of life and economic features of irritable bowel syndrome–the effect of hypnotherapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 10:1, 91-5.

Hull, C. L. (1933). Hypnosis and suggestibility: An experimental approach. New York: Applegate.

Hurwitz, T. D., Mahowald, M. W., Schenck, C. H., Schulter, J. L., Bundlie, S. R. (1991). A retrospective outcome study and review of hypnosis as treatment of adults with sleepwalking and sleep terror. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 179(4), 228-233.

Hutchinson-Philips, S., Gow, K., Jamieson, G. A. (2007). Hypnotizability, eating behaviours, attitudes, and concerns: A literature survey. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 55, 84-113.


Iani, C., Ricci, F., Gherri, E., Rubichi, S. (2006). Hypnotic suggestion modulates cognitive conflict: The case of the Flanker compatibility effect. Psychological Science, 17(8), 721-727.


Jacobson, N. O., Silfverskiold, N. P. (1973). A controlled study of a hypnotic method in the treatment of alcoholism, with evaluation by objective criteria. British Journal of Addiction, 68, 25-31.

Jamieson, G. A. (2007). Hypnosis and conscious states: the cognitive neuroscience perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jamieson, G. A., Woody, E. (2007). Dissociated control as a paradigm for cognitive neuroscience research and theorizing in hypnosis. In G. A. Jamieson (Ed), Hypnosis and conscious states: the cognitive neuroscience perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jamieson, G. A., Sheehan, P. W. (2002). A critical evaluation of the relationship between sustained attentional abilities and hypnotic susceptibility. Contemporary Hypnosis, 19, 62-74.

Jensen, M. P., Patterson, D. R. (2014). Hypnotic approaches for chronic pain management: clinical implications of recent research findings. American Psychologist, 69(2), 167-177

Jiang, H., White, M. P., Greicius, M. D., Waelde, L. C., & Spiegel, D. (2016). Brain Activity and Functional Connectivity Associated with Hypnosis. Cerebral Cortex. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhw220


Kallio, S., Revonsuo, A., Hamalainen, H., Markela, J., Gruzelier, J. H. (2001). Anterior brain functions and hypnosis: a test of the frontal hypothesis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 49, 95-108.

Keefe, F. J., Lumley, M., Anderson, T., Lynch, T., Studts, J. L., Carson, K. L. (2001). Pain and emotion: new research directions. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(4); 587-607.

Kekecs, Z., Nagy, T., Varga, K. (2014). The Effectiveness of Suggestive Techniques in Reducing Postoperative Side Effects: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 119(6), 1407-1419.

Kelly, S. F., Fisher, S., Kelly, R. J. (1978). Effects of cannabis intoxication on primary suggestibility. Psychopharmacology, 56, 217-219.

Kihlstrom, J. F. (2008). The doman of hypnosis revisited. In M. R. Nash & A. J. Barnier (eds). The Oxford Handbook of Hypnosis: Theory, Research and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kihlstrom, J. F. (1985). Hypnosis. Annual Review of Psychology, 36, 385-418.

Kirsch, I. (1985). Response expectancy as a determinant of experience and behaviour. American Psychologist, 40, 1189-1202. Download from jgh.ca

Kirsch, I. (1996). Hypnotic enhancement of cognitive-behavioural weight-loss treatments – another meta-reanalysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 517-519.

Kirsch, I., Cardeña, E., Derbyshire, S., Dienes, Z., Heap, M., Kallio, S., Mazzoni, G., Naish, P., Oakley, D., Potter, C., Walters, V., Whalley, M. (2011). Definitions of Hypnosis and Hypnotizability and their Relation to Suggestion and Suggesitibility: A Consensus Statement. Contemporary Hypnosis (in press) Read draft version of paper

Kirsch, I., Mazzoni, G., Montgomery, G. H. (2007). Remembrance of hypnosis past. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 49, 171-178.

Kirsch, I., Montgomery, G., & Sapirstein, G. (1995). Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 63, 214-220.

Kirsch, I., Lynn, S. J. (1997). Hypnotic involuntariness and the automaticity of everyday life. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 40, 329-348.

Kirsch, I., Wickless, C., Moffitt, K. H. (1999). Expectancy and suggestibility: Are the effects of environmental enhancement due to detection? International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 47, 40-45.

Kirsch, I., Braffman, W. (2001). Imaginative suggestibility and hypnotizability. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4(2), 57-61.

Knox, V. J., Morgan, A. H., Hilgard, E. R. (1974). Pain and suffering in ischemia: the paradox of hypnotically suggested anesthesia as contradicted by reports from the ‘hidden observer’. Archives of General Psychiatry, 30, 840-847.

Kosslyn, S. M., Thompson, W. L., Constantini-Ferrando, M. F., Alpert, N. M., Spiegel, D. (2000). Hypnotic visual illusion alters colour processing in the brain. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157: 1279-84. View abstract and download PDF from AJP


Laidlaw, T. M., Dwivedi, P., Naito, A., Gruzelier, J. H. (2005). Low self-directedness (TCI), mood, schizotypy and hypnotic susceptibility. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 469-480.

Lang, E. V., Rosen, M. P. (2002). Cost analysis of adjunct hypnosis with sedation during outpatient interventional radiologic procedures. Radiology, 222, pp. 375-82.

Lang, E. V., Benotsch, E. G., Fick, L. J., Lutgendorf, S., Berbaum, M. L., Berbaum, K. S., Logan, H., Spiegel, D. (2000). Adjunctive non-pharmacological analgesia for invasive medical procedures: a randomised trial. The Lancet, 355, 1486-1490.

Lichtenberg, P., Bachner-Melman, R., Gritsenko, I., Ebstein, R. P. (2000). Exploratory association study between catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) high/low enzyme activity polymorphism and hypnotizability. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 96(6), 771-774.

Lifshitz, M., & Raz, A. (2015). Hypnotic ability and baseline attention: fMRI findings from Stroop interference. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2(2), 134.

London, P. (1962). Children’s Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Lynn, S. J., Rhue, J. W. (1988). ‘Fantasy-proneness: Hypnosis, developmental antecedents, and psychopathology’. American Psychologist, 43, 35-44.

Lynn, S. J., Rhue, J. W., Weekes, J. (1990). An integrative model of hypnotic involuntariness. In van Dyck, Spinhoven, Van der Does, Van Rood, De Moor (Eds)., Hypnosis: Current Theory, Research and Practice. Amsterdam: VU University Press.

Lynn, S. J., Myer, E., Mackillop, J. (2000). The systematic study of negative post-hypnotic effects: Research hypnosis, clinical hypnosis and stage hypnosis. Contemporary Hypnosis, 17, 127-131.

Lynn, S. J., Kirsch, I., Barabasz, A., Cardeña, E., & Patterson, D. (2000). Hypnosis as an empirically supported clinical intervention: The state of the evidence and a look to the future. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 48, 235-255.


Maquet, P., Faymonville, M. E., Degueldre, C., Delfiore, G., Franck, G., Luxen, A., Lamy, M. (1999). Functional neuroanatomy of hypnotic state. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 327-333.

Maser, J. D., Gallup, G. G. (1974). Tonic immobility in the chicken: Catalepsy potentiation by uncontrollable shock and alleviation by imipramine. Psychosomatic Medicine, 36(3), 199-205.

Mazzoni, G., Rotriquenz, E., Carvalho, C., Vannucci, M., Roberts, K., Kirsch, I. (2009). Suggested visual hallucinations in and out of hypnosis. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 494-499

Mendelsohn, A., Chalamish, Y., Solomonovich, A., Dudai, Y. (2008). Mesmerizing memories: Brain substrates of episodic memory suppression in post-hypnotic amnesia. Neuron, 57, 159-170.

Mesmer, F. A. (1766). Dissertatio Physico-Medica de Planetarium Influxu. Vindobona

Michael, R. B., Garry, M., Kirsch, I. (2012). Suggestion, Cognition, and Behaviour. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(3), 151-156.

Miller, M. F., Barabasz, A. F., Barabasz, M. (1991). Effects of active alert and relaxation hypnotic inductions on cold pressor pain. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(2), 223-226.

Montgomery, G. H., Bovbjerg, D. H., Schnur, J. B., David, D., Goldfarb, A., Weltz, C. R., Schechter, C., Graff-Zivin, J., Tatrow, K., Price, D. D., Siverstein, J. H. (2007). A randomized clinical trial of a brief hypnosis intervention to control side effects in breast surgery patients. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 99, 1304-1312.

Montgomery, G. H., David, D., Winkel, G., Siverstein, J. H., Bovbjerg, D. H. (2002). The effectiveness of adjunctive hypnosis with surgical patients: A meta-analysis. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 94(6), 1639-1645.

Montgomery, GH., DuHamel, KN., Redd WH. (2000). A meta-analysis of hypnotically induced analgesia: how effective is hypnosis? International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 48(2), 138-53.

Morgan, A. H. (1973). The heritability of hypnotic susceptibility in twins. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82, 55-61.

Müller, K., Bacht, K., Schramm, S., Seitz, R. J. (2012). The facilitating effect of clinical hypnosis on motor imagery: An fMRI study. Behavioural Brain Research, 231, 164-169.


Nash, M., Benham, G. (2005). The truth and hype of hypnosis. Scientific American (Read the article on Scientific American website)

Norman, D.A. and Shallice, T. (1980/1986). Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behaviour. Centre for Human Information Processing (Technical Report #99). Reprinted in revised form in Davidson, R.J., Schwartz, G.E., and Shapiro, D. (Eds.) (1986), Consciousness and Self-Regulation (Volume 4), New York: Plenum.


Oakley, D. A. (1999). Hypnosis and consciousness: A structural model. Contemporary Hypnosis, 16, 215-223.

Oakley, D. A. (2006). Hypnosis as a tool in research: experimental psychopathology. Contemporary Hypnosis, 23(1): 3-14.

Oakley, D. A., Deeley. Q., Halligan, P. W. (2007). Hypnotic depth and response to suggestion under standardized conditions and during fMRI scanning. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 55(1), 32-58.

Orne, M. T. (1962). On the social psychology of the psychological experiment: With particular reference to demand characteristics and their implications. American Psychologist, 17(11), 776-783.

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Read the abstract and full text at the British Journal of General Practice

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* This quote has been variously attributed. See this page for an attempt to track down the source